Ferroelectric materials are a type of materials that exhibit spontaneous electric polarization even in the absence of an external electric field. This polarization is reversible and can be switched by applying an external electric field. The name “ferroelectric” comes from the Greek word “ferro,” meaning iron, as early ferroelectric materials were made from iron-based compounds.
Properties of ferroelectric materials include:
- Spontaneous polarization: Ferroelectric materials have a permanent electric polarization even in the absence of an external electric field.
- Reversibility: This polarization can be reversed by applying an external electric field, and the process is reversible.
- Hysteresis: The polarization of ferroelectric materials shows hysteresis behavior, which means that the polarization depends on the history of the material’s electric field exposure.
- Pyroelectricity: Ferroelectric materials exhibit pyroelectricity, which means that they generate an electric charge when their temperature changes.
- Piezoelectricity: Ferroelectric materials also exhibit piezoelectricity, which means that they generate an electric charge when subjected to mechanical stress.
- Capacitors: Ferroelectric materials are used to make high-energy-density capacitors.
- Non-volatile memory: Ferroelectric materials are used in non-volatile memory devices like Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) and Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ).
- Piezoelectric devices: Ferroelectric materials are used to make piezoelectric devices like sensors, actuators, and transducers.
- Electro-optic devices: Ferroelectric materials are used to make electro-optic devices like optical modulators, switches, and waveguides.
- Energy harvesting: Ferroelectric materials are used to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations, temperature gradients, and other sources.
Overall, ferroelectric materials have a wide range of applications in various fields like electronics, sensors, energy harvesting, and optics due to their unique properties.
Ankit Sharma is the Chief Editor at Uptu Khabar. He is passionate about new age digital marketing tools and their integration with the AI.