Hysteresis refers to the phenomenon in which the response of a system depends not only on the current input but also on its history. In other words, hysteresis occurs when the output of a system depends not only on the current input but also on the path by which the input was reached.
In ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis refers to the phenomenon in which the magnetic properties of the material lag behind changes in the magnetic field. When a ferromagnetic material is exposed to a magnetic field, it becomes magnetized, and its magnetic moment aligns with the direction of the applied field. As the magnetic field is increased, the magnetic moment of the material also increases until it reaches a saturation point.
When the applied magnetic field is decreased, the magnetic moment of the material does not decrease immediately but lags behind the decrease in the magnetic field. This lag is known as magnetic hysteresis, and it results in the formation of a hysteresis loop or curve.
The hysteresis curve for a ferromagnetic material is a graph that shows the relationship between the magnetic field strength and the magnetic induction (magnetic flux density) of the material. The hysteresis curve is typically plotted with magnetic induction on the y-axis and magnetic field strength on the x-axis.
The hysteresis loop is closed, meaning that the path traced during an increasing magnetic field is different from the path traced during a decreasing magnetic field. The area enclosed by the hysteresis loop represents the energy lost as heat due to the magnetic hysteresis.
The hysteresis curve provides information about the magnetic properties of the material, such as its coercivity (the magnetic field strength required to reduce the magnetic induction to zero) and its remanence (the residual magnetic induction after the applied magnetic field is removed). Hysteresis is an important phenomenon in the design and operation of magnetic devices, such as transformers, motors, and generators.
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